JOURNAL OF ADVANCED APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr <p>Journal of advanced applied scientific research (JOAASR) is an entrenched podium for scientific exchange among applied scientific research. The journal aims to publish papers dealing with novel experimental and theoretical aspects of applied scientific research. The focus is on fundamental and advance papers that understanding of applied scientific research. JOAASR incorporates innovations of the novel theoretical and experimental approaches on the quantitative, qualitative and modeling of advanced scientific concepts.</p> Jamal Mohamed College Publication en-US JOURNAL OF ADVANCED APPLIED SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 2454-3225 Development and in-vitro evaluation of Etoricoxib loaded Transdermal Film containing MWCNT http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/439 <p>Nanocomposites are materials that integrate either a unit of nanoscale material or multi-units of nanoscale material into a matrix of a standard substance. The main purpose of the current study is to fabricate and evaluate nanocomposite transdermal films of Etoricoxib. The transdermal films of etoricoxib were developed with a mixture of polymers <em>viz.</em> Eudragit RL-100 and HPMC K4M, with or without different percentages of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 1, 3, 5, and 10%, w/w of total polymer) using solvent casting method. Various parameters including FT-IR, DSC, drug content, folding endurance, moisture content, moisture uptake, water vapour permeability (WVP), and <em>in-vitro</em> drug release employing Franz diffusion cell were assessed for the prepared films. The absence of interaction between the drug and polymers was confirmed by FT-IR and DSC studies. The thickness of the resulted films was within the range of 0.33±2.76 µm to 0.43±2.76 µm. The weights of prepared films were between 85.1±1.3 mg to 85.15±0.8 mg. The drug content was measured to be between 4.486 and 5.993 mg. The folding endurance of the developed films ranged from 237.33±7.8 to 342±6.5. The moisture content (%) was between 5.91 ± 1.2% and 8.84 ± 4.0%, whereas the percent moisture uptake of prepared films was observed to be between 8.23 ± 2.1% and 12.38 ±3.6%. The WVP of films was found to be 97.08 ± 0.57 g/m<sup>2</sup>/day to 194.17 ± 0.81 g/m<sup>2</sup>/day. <em>In-vitro</em> release studies revealed that formulation F4 prepared with an equal amount (50:50) of Eudragit RL-100 and HPMC K4M, and 5% MWCNT shows the highest drug release after 24 hr of study.The above results imply that the nanocomposite films could be an effective tool for transdermal delivery of etoricoxib and could act as a better prospect in replacing the oral dosage form.&nbsp;</p> Rabinarayan Parhi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-04 2022-11-04 4 4 In Vitro Studies on Binary Mixture of Skimmed Milk and Urea as Solid Dispersion Carrier for Aceclofenac http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/446 <p>Among the various strategies employed to enhance solubility, dissolution and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs in vivo, formulation of solid dispersion using hydrophilic and/or water-soluble carriers with varying physicochemical characteristics seems to be a developable, economically viable and easy option. The present study is aimed to use skimmed milk(SKM)-urea(U) as a novel binary mixture of classical carrier-hydrotrope in solid dispersion of poorly water-soluble aceclofenac (ACF). Compatibility of ACF and binary mixture of SKM-U was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopic analysis. Solid dispersions of ACF-SKM and ACF-SKM-U were prepared in varying ratios of 1:1 to 1: 5 for ACF-SKM and 1:4.5:0.5, 1:4.25:0.75 and 1:4:1 for ACF-SKM-U by solvent evaporation technique using ethanol(95%) as the common solvent and were characterised by their physical appearance, solubility enhancement (compared to pure drug) in double distilled water and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) at 25 ⁰C and drug dissolution profiles in the above mentioned media. Based on solubility enhancement data(71.53%&nbsp; and 31.03%) and maximum cumulative percentage release data (82.37% in 9 mins and 68.03% in 90 secs ) in double distilled water and phosphate buffer respectively, ACF-SKM (1:5) was found to the best which was used for studying the effect of addition of urea as hydrotrope. ACF: SKM: U (1 : 4.5 : 0.75) exhibited maximum solubility enhancement of 75% .and 36.51% and cumulative percentage release of 83.83 % in 9 mins and 69.24% in 90 secs in double distilled water and&nbsp; buffer respectively. Therefore, the binary mixture of skimmed milk-urea has been proved to be marginally superior over skimmed milk in terms of solubility enhancement and drug release profile of aceclofenac.</p> Prasenjit Sarkar Saumyajyoti Das Sutapa Biswas Majee Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 New Drug Development strategies with special reference to the endocarp of multifaceted agriculture crop – Cocos nucifera Linn http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/447 <p>Coconut shell botanically represents the hard endocarp from the fruit of <em>Cocos nucifera</em> Linn. It is the usually discarded part of the plant with folklore claim in metabolic disorders.Being an inexpensive and easily availablenatural product with ethno medicinal significance, it seems highly relevant to scientifically validate the pharmaceutical implications of the drug. Till date, the new drug development strategies based on quality and efficacy parameters for the crude drug sample of Coconut shell has not been developed. The present study was intended to develop and scientifically validate the quality, purity, safety, potency and efficacy parameters of Coconut shell and thereby exploring the new drug development strategies for the drug. <strong>Materials andmethods:</strong> The study focused on the screening ofCoconut shell based on macroscopic, microscopic, organoleptic, histo-chemicaland HPTLC studies. <strong>Results:</strong>Characteristic presence of thin walled fibres, fibrosclereids,lignins and tannins were observed in themicroscopic analysis of Coconut shell. HPTLC studies also exemplifiedthe detailed bioactive chemical profile of Coconut shell.<strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study outcome suggestsCoconut shell as a novel reliable source of bioactive phytoconstituents with broad prospective in new drug development process.</p> Sreekala V Dwivedi K. N Santosh Kumar Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Case report on clinical effect of Khadir compound drug (Kitibha har kashay)inPsoriasis and its cell line study http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/448 <p>Psoriasis is a common skin disease which is inflammatory, proliferative, autoimmune, and chronic with relapsing nature. It resembles with <em>Kitibha Kustha roga</em> of<em>Ayurveda</em> which is described asrelapsing disease with dry, rough, discolored skin lesions. This is a case report of psoriasis patientwho was treated conservatively with <em>Kitibha har kashay</em> for 3 months. The assessment of clinical improvement was made, along with the biochemical profiling and photographic analysis. Patient was also instructed to follow the do’s and don’ts of the disease for diet and lifestyle also called <em>pathya</em> and <em>apthya</em>. Parameters that were used to assess the clinical improvement were PASI score, IGA scale and grading of <em>Ayurvedic</em>clinical symptoms of <em>Kitibha</em>.The patient was given the medication prepared from the <em>Ayurvedic</em>Pharmacy, Faculty of <em>Ayurveda</em>, BHU in ghan form. The crude and prepared drug was standardized from Institute itself and the data of the patient was maintained by regular follow-ups. The cell line study of water extract of <em>Khadir</em> compound was also done to evaluate the proliferative or antiproliferative action by MTT assay. The clinical result have shown that this drug posses a very effective antipsoriatic action that has significantly reduced PASI score to nil and marked improvement in IGA scale, clinical symptoms andphotographic improvement was found. The cell line study by MTT assay has shown the antiproliferative action of <em>Daruharidra</em> (Berberis aristata) that was one of the constituent of <em>Kitibha har kashay.</em>Further study of this drug on psoriasis specific cytokines is needed to be evaluated by biochemical analysis to evaluate its role in breaking the pathology of psoriasis.</p> Gouri Chauhan Shiwangee Kamlesh Kumar O.P. Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Formulation of Herbal Tea and in Vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity Against Drug-Resistant Uropathogens http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/449 <p>The present study aims to formulate herbal tea and examine antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against uropathogens. Total phenolics content and radical scavenging activity of herbs (Hibiscus, Lemongrass, and Tinospora) and optimized tea were determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method and percent of DPPH inhibition, respectively.The antibacterial activity of selected herbs and optimized tea were tested against three clinical isolates, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae,&nbsp;Escherichia coli</em>, and<em> Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>using the modified agar disc diffusion method. The highest phenolic content and radical scavenging activity were observed in lemongrass, followed by hibiscus flower and tinospora stem. Although, the highest antibacterial activity was recorded by hibiscus flower against all tested pathogens, followed by lemongrass and tinospora. The sensory score of different treatments of herbal tea was analyzed by the Hedonic scale and treatment T<sub>2 </sub>(55:20:25) is found to be best followed by T<sub>1,</sub> T<sub>0, </sub>T<sub>3</sub>. The radical scavenging activity and antibacterial activity of herbal tea were found to be higher than in green tea. The herbal tea also exhibit significant antibacterial activity against common uropathogens <em>E.coli (</em>0.73mm),<em>K.pneumoniae(</em>0.5 mm) <em>and P.aeruginosa (</em>0.4 cm).&nbsp; Therefore, the prepared herbal tea could be recommended for the prevention and treatment of urinary tract infection.</p> Kesarwani Akanksha Shraddha Tripathi Mishra Neha Prasad Ranu Mishra Neetu Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 VatajaYonivyapada (gynecological condition): Scope in Ayurveda http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/450 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong><em>Vatajayonivyapada</em> having signs and symptoms such as pain along with abnormalities in menstrual bleeding matches with many of the gynaecologicaldisorders in women of reproductive age group. It hampers their day-to-day chores and disturbing their interpersonal relationship and most importantly compromises quality of life. Therefore, an instant relief of symptoms is required along with an overall improvement in the general condition of those women.In such conditions, a better alterative non-hormonal Ayurvedic management is planned. <em>Ksheerapaka</em>(medicated milk preparations) of <em>Rasna, Gokshura</em>and<em> Vasa</em> having <em>vedanahara</em> (analgesic effect) is used in the study.<strong> Objective: </strong>In this research work our objective was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of oral <em>RasnadiKsheerapaka</em> in <em>Vatajayonivyapada.</em><strong> Materials and method: </strong>Total 30 patients within 20-40 years of ageirrespective of the marital status having classical symptoms of <em>Vatajayonivyapada</em> have been selected randomly from Prasuti Tantra OPD, S.S. Hospital, BHU, Varanasi. After detailed history, complete examination and investigations patients selected for the study on the basis of selection criteria.Patientswere treatedwith <em>Rasnadiksheerapaka</em>50ml orally once in a day for total duration of 45 days. Study was assessed after completion of follow-up period.<strong> Result: </strong>Among the 28 cases, 5 patients became cured and 6 remained without any improvement and all the remaining 17 patients have got mild to marked improvement in the signs and symptoms.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>It is concluded that <em>Rasnadiksheerapaka</em>has got the therapeutic efficacy in the <em>Vatajayonivyapada</em>management<em>.</em> Also helps in improving the overall health status and quality of life in such women.</p> Monisha VM Anuradha Roy Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Ethnopharmaceutical importance of under-explored plant species Hyptissuaveolens (L.) http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/451 <p>Plants store a variety of important secondary metabolites with pharmacognostic and pharmacological implications, some of which have the potential to become super medicines in the future. In-vivo generation of these metabolites is influenced bya number of biotic and abiotic factors resulting in a constant accumulation of various phytochemicals and their derivatives that could be relevant in future medication research and development. There are over 70,000 plant species are employed ethnomedicinally in various ancient medical systems such as Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani, as well as in Allopathy. The goal of this study is to look into the therapeutic potential of secondary metabolites as well as the probable pharmacological and pharmacognostic significance of the under-explored/underutilized plant <em>Hyptissuaveolens</em> (L.) Poit.Almost all parts of this plant are being employed in conventional drug to treat various diseases. It has been reported that it shows protection against peptic ulcer diseases and has anti-cancerous properties. The leaves of <em>Hyptissuaveolens</em>secreted essential oil by hydrodistillation have been linked to the genus Hyptis' broad range of biological activity. It contains phytochemicals like alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, minerals (like calcium, magnesium, sodium) and metals (like zinc and iron). The ursolic acid found in <em>H. suaveolens</em> can be used as a COVID-19 virus treatment agent. In addition, the ethnobotanical study claims that the beneficial plant has neuroprotective, antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, insecticidal, antimitotic, anti-proliferative, antisecretory, hepatoprotective, and acaricidal properties. The phytochemicals and extracts obtained from the plant have a great deal of therapeutic promise. As a result, we can use this plant for a variety of purposes.</p> Rajani Srivastava Shreya Pandey Ambrish Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Impacts of Paracetamol on the growth of Cicer arietinum (Gram) http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/452 <p>&nbsp;Plants have to face a lot of stress like heat, cold, acidic and alkaline conditions as well as presence of unusual chemicals due to pollution. Plants responses in different ways to resist the impact of these stresses by morphological, biochemical, physiological and other methods to adapt themselves for survival but if the level of stress becomes very high then plants cannot resist completely and shows changes in rate of their growth and development pattern. Present research work concludes the results and their interpretations obtained after the observations regarding the length of shoot and roots and the number of leaves of <em>Cicer arietinum </em>(Gram) growing under the stress of pharmaceutical agent paracetamol. The work shows that in general as the concentrations of paracetamol increases, the height and the growth of the gram plants decreases.</p> Vijai Krishna Chameli Soren Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Plant Extracts as Alternative Therapeutic Agents for Anaemia: A Review http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/453 <p>Anaemia, one of the most common blood nutrition deficiency affecting at all ages of people. In Ayurveda, according to Acharya Charak, sign and symptoms of anaemia has close resemblance to Pandu Roga as like paleness, weakness, Heart Tonic, Eye Inflammation etc. As WHO claims<em>, Anaemia</em>&nbsp;is a medical situation in which the amount of RBCs or Hb count is lower than the normal individual and it is estimated that over 40 percent of children below age five are anaemic.&nbsp; On the basis of reported data plant extracts have been proved to be effective alternative therapy for the management of anaemic conditions. Physicians mostly prescribe iron-rich diet and vitamin supplements for the treatment of anaemia. Iron supplements are easily available in markets, if consumed prolonged, it can cause severe problems like gastro intestinal problems, hepatic disorders and sometimes even cause cancer. Hence, scientists are looking for an alternative for these iron supplements for the management of anaemia. Plant extracts could play a great role against anaemia. In this study, extracts of 20different plants as like- <em>Solanum nigrum</em><em>, </em><em>Terminalia chebula</em><em>, Beta Vulgaris </em>etc. are discussed, which are experimentally proven to be effective in anaemia. Applications of these medicinal plants in anaemia is also mentioned in classical Ayurveda literature from ancient time. So, these plant extracts are may be an alternative therapy for the management of anaemia and this study could help researchers for research in anaemia and other related disorders.</p> Km Sukh Wati Mohd. Ehsan A K Singh M K Nandi Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 Evidence of practice of Nutraceuticals/ Functional foods in our daily life described in Ayurveda http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/454 <p>Ayurveda Scholars has considered food (Ahara) as an important pillar for development, sustenance of a healthy life and longevity. Considering the importance of food in health and disease.Charak has mentioned that the health or state of disease depends on rationale use of food. Food has been also considered as an etiological factor of several disorder as well as management and prevention of diseases. Ayurveda has given the comprehensive classification of food that are described in respect of their rasa(taste), vīrya(potency), vipāka (taste after digestion) and prabhāva (special actions) under the chapter Annapana Vidhi Adhyaya of Charak Samhita e.g. corn with spike/awn, corn with pods/legumes, pulses, meat, leaf, fruits, greens, leafy vegetables, wine, water, milk, products of sugar cane juice. In the mid of 1980s the term ‘functional food’ was coined in Japan to refer the food substances which have additional special health benefits. Spices and condiments which are commonly used in every kitchen on regular basis during different cooking preparations such as turmeric, ginger, garlic, onion, coriander, cinnamon, cumin, clove, fennel, barley, Indian gooseberry, tulsi, aloe vera etc. has been described in Ayurveda thousands year back with their special health benefits. In India there are number of traditional products used as functional food but needs more scientific validation, it could be a research opportunity in nutrition to explore the relation between certain diseases and these food components.Functional foods provide great potential for prevention of several chronic diseases, when consumed in balanced proportion in food preparations with a healthy lifestyle.</p> Samiksha Rai Vandana Verma Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-05 2022-11-05 4 4 A REVIEW ON NILINI: AN IMPORTANT AYURVEDIC MEDICINAL PLANTS http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/456 <p><em>Nilini </em>botanically identified as <em>Indigoferatinctoria</em>Linn. belong to family Fabaceae. The plant is an important source of natural blue dye (Indigo) obtained from its leaflets and branches and traditionally used for the treatment of cough, splenomegaly, greying of hairs, backache, gout, abdominal distention, rheumatoid arthritis, fever and in worm infestation. Present chapter deals its historical, taxonomical, morphological, ethno-pharmacological and therapeutical aspects.</p> Dr. Ashwini Kumar Kushwaha Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 4 4 The Advancement of Nanotechnology in Treating Alzheimer’s Disease http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/457 <p>Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with high prevalence in the rapidly increasingaging population in the worldwide. It is primarily caused by the collection of beta-amyloid plaques in the brain. The aim of this study to discuss the advancement of nanotechnology that help in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorder. Nanotechnology has shown its superiority that can applied medicinal uses and play great potential rolein therapy of Alzheimer’s disease. This is help to increasing the efficacy and efficiency of drug delivery by penetrating and overcoming the blood-brain barrier. There is need to explore and research in order to minimize the adverse effect and potential toxicity and to improve the drug bioavailability. The available medications in the market have only ability to slow down its progression.The current advances in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease using nanotechnology contain the regeneration of stem cells, nanomedicine, and neuroprotection. The significantmediators for neuroprotection containnanogels, fullerene, dendrimers, gold nanoparticles and diamondoid derivatives</p> Riya Singh Ayushi Maurya Neha Singh Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 4 4 Role of kshara (an alkali preparation) in wound healing with special reference to cervical erosion http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/458 <p>Cervical erosion is caused by the replacement of the stratified squamous epithelium of the ectocervix with the endocervical columnar epithelium. In Ayurvedic classics, it can be co-related to&nbsp;<em>garbhashayagrivagatavrana</em>. Its management mainly includes destruction of overgrown epithelium by different techniques has its own limitations and side effects. Further observing its prevalence there is a requirement for a treatment modality which is more efficient and cost-effective.&nbsp;<em>Kshara</em>&nbsp;which possesses&nbsp;<em>lekhana&nbsp;</em>(scrapping),&nbsp;<em>vrana</em>-<em>shodhana&nbsp;</em>(wound cleansing), and&nbsp;<em>ropana&nbsp;</em>(wound healing) properties as described in Ayurveda, provides a scientific background of the therapeutic application in the management. Different review works revealed the potential use of&nbsp;<em>kshara</em>&nbsp;on wound healing due to its alkalinity which maintain the body pH within the normal range and thus maintains different cellular and extracellular function. Therefore,&nbsp;<em>kshara</em> is found to be an important preparation that has been investigated for its gynecological uses by different scholars.</p> Pragati Saxena Anuradha Roy Binay Sen Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 4 4 MRI-DTI Imaging Reveals Specific Neuro-degeneration Signature in Precuneus Node of Awareness Processing in Brain under Alzheimer’s Disease http://mail.joaasr.com/index.php/joaasr/article/view/460 <p style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><strong><span lang="EN-IN" style="color: #0e101a;">Introduction:</span></strong><span lang="EN-IN" style="color: #0e101a;">Alzheimer's disease(AD) displays progressive neurodegenerative atrophy, causing neuronal lossaffecting cognitive skills and memory. As precuneus is associated with episodic memory and is the reflexive self-awareness hub node, we consider precuneus as region-of-interest(ROI) for analysing AD.<strong>Objective:</strong>The main objective is find AD-caused alteration in nerve fibres, using diffusion tensor imaging(DTI) parameters like Mean Diffusivity(MD), Fractional Anisotropy(FA), and Nerve-tract Parameters, as number, length, volume, density, and thus, analyse the effect on precuneus by AD [when compared to normal subjects(CN)].<strong>Materials/Methods:</strong>Normals and Alzheimer’s subjects (n=50 each) were scanned with Siemens 3-tesla MRI-scanner. DTI parameters were estimated by DSI-FSL procedure, with statistical analysis usingt-test/ANOVA.<strong>Results:</strong>While ageing-process occurs in both AD and CN subjects, there is no change in “macro-structural” nerve fibre characteristics (e.g. Tract Indices: Number, density, volume, length)</span><span lang="EN-IN" style="color: red;">. </span><span lang="EN-IN" style="color: #0e101a;">Contrastingly, there is significant alteration in “micro-structural” fibre characteristics, as increase in Mean Diffusivity(p=0.0006) and decrease in Fractional Anisotropy(p=0.0009) in Alzheimer's disease, when compared with normal subjects. Furthermore, comparing left-versus-right brain, Alzheimer’s patients (but not Normal subjects) show diminution in macro-structural nerve characteristics in left precuneus (compared to right precuneus): namely Tract’s number(p=0.0010), length(p=0.0107), volume(p=0.0225), density(p=0.0340).<strong>Conclusion:</strong>Under neurodegeneration, change in “micro-structural” nerve-fibre characteristics (Tract Indices), as opposed to “macro structural” fibre indices, can be hallmark for AD. Moreover, right precuneus is more protected in AD. Conversely, left precuneus has more neurodegeneration since its blood-flow is supplied by left common-carotid artery (unlike right common-carotid artery), this left artery arises directly from high-pressure aortic flow, transmitting turbulent hemodynamic stress to left precuneus. </span></p> Ranjitha Ruttala Pratik Purohit AninditaBhattacharjee BinduKumari Prasun K. Roy Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-07 2022-11-07 4 4